Modern and Future Climate

The Climate Science Group strives to solve problems in climate on timescales from seasonal to Quaternary and beyond. We use models representing the ocean, the atmosphere, the cryosphere and the land surface, ranging from simple to complex. In addition to analyses of data from recent decades, we develop techniques to extract as much as possible from the inaccurate and sparse data of the past.
Much of our work, often in collaboration with the International Research Institute located at Lamont, has been on understanding and predicting seasonal to interannual climate variations, especially El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, and on the impacts of such variations on agriculture and health. Our recent focus is on accounting for the startlingly abrupt changes apparent in the paleoclimate record. Could such changes occur in the near future? Our investigations of the past and the future rely heavily on our knowledge of modern climate dynamics.

Xiaomeng Jin
Personal Information
Xiaomeng
Jin
Graduate Student
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Ocean and Climate Physics
Contact Information
207E Oceanography
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US

Fax: 

(845) 365-8157
Ryan Abernathey
Personal Information
Ryan
Abernathey
Assistant Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Ocean and Climate Physics
Contact Information
205C Oceanography
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8185

Fax: 

(845) 365-8156

Fields of interest: 

physical oceanography, ocean circulation, climate dynamics, mesoscale eddies, mixing and transport

My primary research interests are:

  • The role of ocean circulation (particularly the Southern Ocean) in the climate system
  • Dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and its overturning circulation
  • Mixing and transport by ocean eddies

 

Education
Ph.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
02/2012
B.A.
Middlebury College
06/2004
SONYA DYHRMAN
Personal Information
Sonya
Dyhrman
Associate Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Biology and Paleo Environment
Contact Information
102E Geoscience
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8165

Fax: 

(845) 365-8163

I am broadly interested in how marine microbes like phytoplankton interact with their geochemical environment, where I use molecular level tools to study the intersection of microbial physiology and biogeochemistry.

Microbial oceanography group members are using a suite of genome-enabled approaches to examine the distribution and activities of marine phytoplankton, and how they influence cycling of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Our work often uses model cultures to understand and bound field observations made on research cruises that span the from polar to tropical systems. This research emphasis provides advanced training for undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral scholars and it is also used as a framework for the development and implementation of inquiry-based educational activities for children.

Education
Ph.D.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego
11/1999
B.A.
Dartmouth College
06/1994
Arlene M. Fiore
Personal Information
Arlene
M.
Fiore
Associate Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Ocean and Climate Physics
Contact Information
207D Oceanography
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8580

Fax: 

(845) 365-8157

Fields of interest: 

interactions among regional air pollution, global atmospheric chemistry, climate, and the biosphere; chemistry-climate and tropospheric chemistry-transport modeling.

Please see group website (link above) for more information.

Education
Ph.D. in Earth and Planetary Sciences
Harvard University
06/2003
A.B. in Environmental Geoscience, magna cum laude
Harvard College
06/1997
Xiaojun Yuan
Personal Information
Xiaojun
Yuan
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Ocean and Climate Physics
Contact Information
204D Oceangraphy
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8820

Fax: 

(845) 365-8157

Fields of interest: 

My primary research interest is in the Antarcitc atmosphere, ocean and sea ice/glacial ice fields.

I have engaged in studies of variability of the Antarctic atmosphere-ocean-sea ice system and its role in global climate since 1995.My research has progressed from the identification of polar-global linkages, expanded to an ENSO-Antarctic Dipole teleconnection mechanism study, and finally resulted in an Antarctic sea ice forecast. At the same time, I have utilized space-born scatterometer observations and developed a series of studies focused on air-sea interactions on synoptic time scales, ranging from cyclone-sea ice interaction, high wind evaluations to satellite enhanced cyclone statistics in the Southern Ocean. With the accumulation of knowledge regarding climate variability in the atmosphere, sea ice and at the air-sea interface, an understanding of the ocean’s role in the mid-high latitudes climate system becomes increasingly important. However, this task is much more challenging because of sparse observations in the Southern Ocean. In recent years, I have developed a few oceanic field programs to advance our knowledge of how the polar ocean plays out in the climate system.

Education
Ph.D..
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego
12/1994
B.S. in Physical Onceanigraphy
Shandong College of Oceanography, Qingdao, China
6/1982
Selected Publications:
Inflow of Warm Circumpolar Deep Water in the Central Amundsen Shelf, Wahlin, A K; Yuan, X; Bjork, G; Nohr, C Journal of Physical Oceanography (2010)
Satellite-based midlatitude cyclone statistics over the Southern Ocean: 2. Tracks and surface fluxes, Yuan, X., J. Patoux and C. Li, J. Geophys. Res., , Volume: 114 (2009)
Trends in Antarctic annual sea ice retreat and advance and their relation to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode variability, Stammerjohn, S. E.; Martinson, D. G.; Smith, R. C.; Yuan, X.; Rind, D. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans Mar 14, Volume: 113, Issue: C3 p.: - (2008) Doi 10.1029/2007jc004269
Fronts and strong currents of the upper southeast Indian Ocean, He, Z. G.; Dong, Z. Q.; Yuan, X. J. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, Volume: 25, Issue: 2 p.: 1-24 (2006)
ENSO-related impacts on Antarctic sea ice: a synthesis of phenomenon and mechanisms, Yuan, X. J. Antarctic Science Dec, Volume: 16, Issue: 4 p.: 415-425 (2004) Doi 10.1017/S0954102004002238
High-wind-speed evaluation in the Southern Ocean, Yuan, X. J. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres Jul 1, Volume: 109, Issue: D13 p.: - (2004) Doi 10.1029/2003jd004179
A Markov model for seasonal forecast of Antarctic sea ice, Chen, D. K.; Yuan, X. J. Journal of Climate Aug, Volume: 17, Issue: 16 p.: 3156-3168 (2004)
Re-evaluating Antarctic sea-ice variability and its teleconnections in a GISS global climate model with improved sea ice and ocean processes, Liu, J. P.; Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G.; Rind, D. International Journal of Climatology Jun 15, Volume: 24, Issue: 7 p.: 841-852 (2004) Doi 10.1002/Joc.1040
Upper ocean thermohaline structure and its temporal variability in the southeast Indian Ocean, Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G.; Dong, Z. Q. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers Feb, Volume: 51, Issue: 2 p.: 333-347 (2004) DOI 10.1016/j.dsr.2003.10.005
Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model, Liu, J. P.; Schmidt, G. A.; Martinson, D. G.; Rind, D.; Russell, G.; Yuan, X. J. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans Feb 27, Volume: 108, Issue: C2 p.: - (2003) Doi 10.1029/2001jc001167
Evaluating Antarctic sea ice variability and its teleconnections in global climate models, Liu, J. P.; Martinson, D. G.; Yuan, X. J.; Rind, D. International Journal of Climatology Jun 30, Volume: 22, Issue: 8 p.: 885-900 (2002) Doi 10.1002/Joc.770
Mechanism study of the ENSO and southern high latitude climate teleconnections, Liu, J. P.; Yuan, X. J.; Rind, D.; Martinson, D. G. Geophysical Research Letters Jul 15, Volume: 29, Issue: 14 p.: - (2002) Doi 10.1029/2002gl015143
The Antarctic Dipole and its predictability, Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G. Geophysical Research Letters Sep 15, Volume: 28, Issue: 18 p.: 3609-3612 (2001)
Climate response to basin-specific changes in latitudinal temperature gradients and implications for sea ice variability, Rind, D.; Chandler, M.; Lerner, J.; Martinson, D. G.; Yuan, X. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres Sep 16, Volume: 106, Issue: D17 p.: 20161-20173 (2001)
Antarctic sea ice extent variability and its global connectivity, Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G. Journal of Climate May 15, Volume: 13, Issue: 10 p.: 1697-1717 (2000)
Effect of air-sea-ice interaction on winter 1996 Southern Ocean subpolar storm distribution, Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G.; Liu, W. T. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres Jan 27, Volume: 104, Issue: D2 p.: 1991-2007 (1999)
Climate variation - Cycling around the South Pole, Yuan, X. J.; Cane, M. A.; Martinson, D. G. Nature Apr 25, Volume: 380, Issue: 6576 p.: 673-674 (1996)
The subarctic frontal zone in the North Pacific: Characteristics of frontal structure from climatological data and synoptic surveys, Yuan, X. J.; Talley, L. D. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans Jul 15, Volume: 101, Issue: C7 p.: 16491-16508 (1996)
Joaquim Goes
Personal Information
Joaquim
Goes
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Biology and Paleo Environment
Contact Information
7 Marine Biology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8467

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

a) Marine phytoplankton physiology and productivity b) Climate change and its impact on ocean biota and biogeochemical processes c) Development of ocean color and other remote sensing algorithms and methods for studying ocean carbon cycling and air-s

My major research efforts have been directed at understanding the structure and functioning of plankton ecosystems and their response to physical forcing so that a capability can be developed to forecast responses of marine ecosystems to global change (Goes et al, 2001. 2004, 2005; Limsakul et al., 2001). For my research work I rely on an approach that examines phytoplankton at the cellular level, where changes in phytoplankton cell physiology, biochemistry and optical properties are studied as a means of evaluating their role and response to changes in the environment (Goes et al., 2002). With the help of empirical or semi-analytical modeling techniques, information obtained at the cellular level is then extrapolated to regional and global scales using data from satellites and ships. Research on this front has led to the development of satellite based methods that have made it possible to assess how large-scale climatic events such as El-Niño and La Niña, the North Atlantic Oscillation impact atmospheric CO2 draw down by phytoplankton (export production). (Goes et al, 200, 2004) Ship and satellite studies, currently underway in the Arabian Sea, have provided the first indications of rapid ecosystem changes being brought about by global warming and the rapid decline in snow over the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau region (Goes et al.,2005, Gomes et al., 2008; 2009). Bio-optical and phytoplankton physiological studies being undertaken in the Bering Sea are aiding in the development of regional satellite ocean color algorithms that will help assess how the Bering Sea shelf ecosystem is responding to changes in sea-ice concentrations. In the Amazon River Plume, ship and satellite are being collected to help understand the influence of the Amazon River on the pelagic ecosystem, carbon cycling and sequestration in the tropical north Atlantic and the sensitivity of this ecosystem to anthropogenic climate change.

Education
Doctor of Science
Nagoya University, Japan
05/1996
Master of Science
Bombay University
09/1985
Bachelor of Science
Bombay University
06/1980
Neil Pederson
Personal Information
Neil
Pederson
Adjunct Assistant Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Biology and Paleo Environment
Contact Information

Fields of interest: 

Terrestrial Ecosystems, Dendrochronology, Dendroclimatology, Forest Ecosystems, Disturbance Ecology
Education
Ph.D.
Columbia University
08/2005
MS
Auburn University
08/1994
BS
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry
12/1990
AS
State University of New York Morrisville Ag & Tech
05/1988
Selected Publications:
Temperature and precipitation in Mongolia based on dendroclimatic investigations, Jacoby, G.; Pederson, N.; D'Arrigo, R. Chinese Science Bulletin Jul, Volume: 48, Issue: 14 p.: 1474-1479 (2003) Doi 10.1360/02wd0390
1738 years of Mongolian temperature variability inferred from a tree-ring width chronology of Siberian pine, D'Arrigo, R.; Jacoby, G.; Frank, D.; Pederson, N.; Cook, E.; Buckley, B.; Nachin, B.; Mijiddorj, R.; Dugarjav, C. Geophysical Research Letters Feb 1, Volume: 28, Issue: 3 p.: 543-546 (2001)
Hydrometeorological reconstructions for northeastern Mongolia derived from tree rings: 1651-1995, Pederson, N.; Jacoby, G. C.; D'Arrigo, R. D.; Cook, E. R.; Buckley, B. M.; Dugarjav, C.; Mijiddorj, R. Journal of Climate, Volume: 14, Issue: 5 p.: 872-881 (2001)
Monogolian tree-rings, temperature sensitivity and reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere temperature, D'Arrigo, R.; Jacoby, G.; Pederson, N.; Frank, D.; Buckley, B.; Nachin, B.; Mijiddorj, R.; Dugarjav, C. Holocene Nov, Volume: 10, Issue: 6 p.: 669-672 (2000)
Temperature and precipitation in Mongolia based on dendroclimatic investigations, Jacoby, G.; D'Arrigo, R.; Pederson, N.; Buckley, B.; Dugarjav, C.; Mijiddorj, R. Iawa Journal, Volume: 20, Issue: 3 p.: 339-350 (1999)
David S. Goldberg
Personal Information
David
S.
Goldberg
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Marine Geology and Geophysics
Associate Director - Marine/Large Programs
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Contact Information
109 Borehole
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8674

Fax: 

(845) 365-8777

Fields of interest: 

Borehole Geophysics, Methane Hydrates, CO2 sequestration
Education
Ph.D.
Columbia University
1985
MBA
Columbia University
1989
MS
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1981
BS
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1981
Joerg M. Schaefer
Personal Information
Joerg
M.
Schaefer
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Geochemistry
Contact Information
409 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8703

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155
Selected Publications:
Greenland was nearly ice-free for extended periods during the Pleistocene, Schaefer, Joerg M.; Finkel, Robert C.; Balco, Greg; Alley, Richard B.; Caffee, Marc C.; Briner, Jason P.; Young, Nicolas E.; Gow, Anthony J.; Schwartz, Roseanne Nature December 8, 2016, Volume: 540 p.: 252-255 (2016) doi:10.1038/nature20146
Do phreatomagmatic eruptions at Ubehebe Crater (Death Valley, California) relate to a wetter than present hydro-climate?, Sasnett, P.; Goehring, B.M.; Christie-Blick, N.; and Schaefer, J.M. Geophysical Research Letters 01/2012, Volume: 39 (2012) 10.1029/2011GL050130
Terrestrial exposure-age record of Holocene ice sheet and ice shelf change in the northeast Antarctic Peninsula, Balco, Greg; Schaefer, Joerg M.; LARISSA group Quaternary Science Reviews (2012)
Estimating the Age of Glacial Features and Magnitude of Subglacial Erosion Using Beryllium-10 Depth Profiles: Results from Scoresby Sund, Greenland, Goehring, B.M.; Kelly, M.A.; Schaefer, J.M.; Lowell, T.V.; Finkel, R.M. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface (2010)
Changing influence of Antarctic and Greenlandic temperature records on sea-level over the last glacial cycle, Siddall, M.; Kaplan, M.R.; Schaefer, J.M.; Putnam, A.; Kelly, M.A.; Goehring, B. Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume: 29, Issue: 3-4 p.: 410-423 (2010) 10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.11.007
A reevaluation of in situ cosmogenic 3He production rates, Goehring, B.M.; Kurz, M.D.; Balco, G.; Schaefer, J.M.; Licciardi; J; Lifton, N. Quaternary Geochronology (2010)
A beryllium-10 production-rate for the Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes, Putnam, A E; Schaefer, J M; Vandergoes, M; Barrell, D; Kaplan, M; Goehring, B; Schwartz, R; Finkel, R; Kelley, S; Denton, G H Journal of Quaternary Geochronology (2010)
The bipolar switch - changing influence of Antarctic and Greenland temperature records on sea level over the last glacial cycle, Sidall, M; Kaplan, MR; Schaefer, JM; Putnam, A; Kelly, MA; Goehring, B Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume: 29 p.: 410-423 (2010)
A high precision 10Be production rate calibration in New Zealand's Southern Alps, Putnam, A; Schaefer, J M; Barrell, D; Kaplan, M; Denton, G H; Vandergoes, M; Schwartz, R; Finkel, R C; Goehring, B; Kelley, S M Quaternary Geochronology (2010)
A glacier advance in the Peruvian Andes during the late glacial period constrained with cosmogenic He-3, Bromley, G R M; Hall, B; Schaefer, J M; Winckler, G; Todd, C E; Rademacher, K M Journal of Quaternary Science (2010)
Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial, Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H.; Barrell, D.J.A.; Chinn, T.J.H.; Putnam, A.E.; Andersen, B.G.; Finkel, R.C.; Schwartz, R.; Doughty, A. Nature (2010)
The last glacial termination, Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Edwards, R. L.; Schaefer, J. M.; Putnam, A. E Science, Volume: 328 p.: 1652-1656 (2010)
Glacier Retreat in New Zealand During the Younger Dryas Stadial, Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H.; Barrell, D.J.A.; Chinn, T.J.H.; Putnam, A.E.; Andersen, B.G.; Finkel, R.C.; Schwartz, R.; Doughty, A. Nature (2010)
Regional beryllium-10 production rate calibration for late-glacial northeastern North America, Balco, G.; Briner, J.; Finkel, R. C.; Rayburn, J. A.; Ridge, J. C.; Schaefer, J. M. Quaternary Geochronology Apr, Volume: 4, Issue: 2 p.: 93-107 (2009) DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2008.09.001
Precise Be-10 production rate calibration in New Zealand's Southern Alps for the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum periods,, Putnam, A.; Schaefer, J. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Barrell, D.; Kaplan, M.; Finkel, R.; Goehring, B.; Schwartz, R.; Denton, G. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta Jun, Volume: 73, Issue: 13 p.: A1061-A1061 (2009)
High-Frequency Holocene Glacier Fluctuations in New Zealand Differ from the Northern Signature, Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Kaplan, M.; Putnam, A.; Finkel, R. C.; Barrell, D. J. A.; Andersen, B. G.; Schwartz, R.; Mackintosh, A.; Chinn, T.; Schluchter, C. Science May 1, Volume: 324, Issue: 5927 p.: 622-625 (2009) DOI 10.1126/science.1169312
Holocene Glacier Fluctuations in the Peruvian Andes Indicate Northern Climate Linkages, Licciardi, J M; Schaefer, J M; Taggart, J R; Lund, D C Science, Volume: 325 p.: 1677 (2009)
Relative timing of last glacial maximum and late-glacial events in the central tropical Andes, Bromley, G R M; Schaefer, J M; Winckler, G; Hall, B L; Todd, C E; Rademaker, K M Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume: 28 p.: 2514 (2009)
High-Frequency Holocene Glacier Fluctuations in New Zealand Differ from the Northern Signature, Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Kaplan, M.; Putnam, A.; Finkel, R. C.; Barrell, D. J. A.; Andersen, B. G.; Schwartz, R.; Mackintosh, A.; Chinn, T.; Schluchter, C. Science (2009)
A Be-10 chronology of lateglacial and Holocene mountain glaciation in the Scoresby Sund region, east Greenland: implications for seasonality during lateglacial time, Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Hall, B. L.; Schaefer, J. M.; Finkel, R. C.; Goehring, B. M.; Alley, R. B.; Denton, G. H. Quaternary Science Reviews Dec, Volume: 27, Issue: 25-26 p.: 2273-2282 (2008) DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.08.004
Cosmogenic beryllium-10 and neon-21 dating of late Pleistocene glaciations in Nyalam, monsoonal Himalayas, Schaefer, J. M.; Oberholzer, P.; Zhao, Z.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Wieler, R.; Baur, H.; Kubik, P. W.; Schluchter, C. Quaternary Science Reviews Feb, Volume: 27, Issue: 3-4 p.: 295-311 (2008) DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.10.014
The production rate of cosmogenic Ar-38 from calcium in terrestrial pyroxene, Niedermann, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Wieler, R.; Naumann, R. Earth and Planetary Science Letters May 30, Volume: 257, Issue: 3-4 p.: 596-608 (2007) DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.03.020
Cosmogenic-nuclide and varve chronologies for the deglaciation of southern New England, Balco, G.; Schaefer, J. M. Quaternary Geochronology Feb, Volume: 1, Issue: 1 p.: 15-28 (2006) DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2006.06.014
Near-synchronous interhemispheric termination of the last glacial maximum in mid-latitudes, Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Barrell, D. J. A.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Kubik, P. W.; Andersen, B. G.; Phillips, F. M.; Lowell, T. V.; Schluchter, C. Science Jun 9, Volume: 312, Issue: 5779 p.: 1510-1513 (2006) DOI 10.1126/science.1122872
Terrestrial manganese-53 - A new monitor of Earth surface processes, Schaefer, J. M.; Faestern-Iann, T.; Herzog, G. F.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Masarik, J.; Meier, A.; PoutivtseV, M.; Rugel, G.; Schluchter, C. Earth and Planetary Science Letters Nov 15, Volume: 251, Issue: 3-4 p.: 334-345 (2006) DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.016
Timing of deglaciation on the northern Alpine foreland (Switzerland), Ivy-Ochs, S.; Schaefer, J.; Kubik, P. W.; Synal, H. A.; Schluchter, C. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, Volume: 97, Issue: 1 p.: 47-55 (2004) DOI 10.1007/s00015-004-1110-0
Limited Pliocene/Pleistocene glaciation in Deep Freeze Range, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, derived from in situ cosmogenic nuclides, Oberholzer, P.; Baroni, C.; Schaefer, J. M.; Orombelli, G.; Ochs, S. I.; Kubik, P. W.; Baur, H.; Wieler, R. Antarctic Science Dec, Volume: 15, Issue: 4 p.: 493-502 (2003) Doi 10.1017/S0954102003001603

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